• Milena Santana França Universidade Evangélica de Goiás - UniEVANGÉLICA
  • Mayara Bernardo Albuquerque Universidade Evangélica de Goiás - UniEVANGÉLICA
  • Nathália Fernandes da Silva Universidade Evangélica de Goiás - UniEVANGÉLICA
  • Dariana Batista Milhomem Universidade Evangélica de Goiás - UniEVANGÉLICA
  • Ana Maria de Castro Universidade Evangélica de Goiás - UniEVANGÉLICA
  • Viviane Soares Universidade Evangélica de Goiás - UniEVANGÉLICA


cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular risk, athletes, respiratory function


Regular exercises, such as running, directly influence the improvement of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). VO2max is considered one of the main indicators of aerobic power and the maintenance of adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are recognized for bringing health benefits, acting in the prevention of cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory diseases, obesity and stress. Objective: To relate cardiorespiratory fitness with anthropometric measurements, cardiovascular risk factors, respiratory function, food consumption and perceived stress in street runners. Methods: This is a descriptive, quantitative, observational cross-sectional study with experimental procedures and field data collection. Street runners between 18 and 59 years of age, of both sexes, divided by tertiles (tertile 1 VO2max ≤32.6 ml/kg/min, tertile 2 VO2max between 32.7 and 41.6 ml/kg/min and tertile 3 with VO2max ≥41.6 ml/kg/min.) according to VO2max values, were included in the research, and individuals who did not participate in all stages of the research were excluded. Mediterranean Diet Food Frequency, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were applied, as well as anthropometric measurements (waist-hip ratio – WHR; body mass index - BMI), Shuttle Run test, pulmonary function tests (peak expiratory flow- PEF; Forced Expiratory volume in one second - FEV1; Forced vital capacity – FVC; maximal inspiratory pressure – MIP; maximal expiratory pressure – MEP). Results: Participated runners aged 34.9±11.1 years. Tertile 1 had lower values of FVC (p=0.001), FEV1 (p<0.001), PEF (p=0.003) than tertile 2. Tertile 1 had lower values of MEP (p=0.007), FVC (p= 0.030), FEV1 (p=0.012) and PEF (p=0.001) when compared to tertile 3, the higher the score (p=0.022) when compared to tertile 3. There was an association of WHR with VO2max, 69.6% of people with WHR above predicted were in the group with the lowest VO2max. Among the participants, 14 (22.6%) had ventilatory disorders, 9 (14.5%) had a restrictive disorder and 5 (8.1%) had a mixed disorder. BMI showed a small negative correlation with VO2max (r=-0.270, p=0.034), FEV1 (r=0.509, p<0.001), PEF (r=0577, p<0.001) and MEP (r=0.490, p<0.001) were strong positive correlation, as well as the level of physical activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that street runners with better VO2max also presented better spirometric parameters, expiratory muscle strength and perceived stress and consequently a reduction in cardiovascular risk.


ACSM. Diretrizes do ACSM para os testes de esforço e sua prescrição / American College of Sports Medicine; tradução Dilza Balteiro Pereira de Campos. – 9. Ed. – Rio de janeiro: Guanabara, 2014.

BARROSO, W.K.S. et al. Diretrizes Brasileiras de Hipertensão Arterial – 2020. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia. v. 116, n. 3, p. 516-658, 2021.

BROWN, P.I. et al. Ventilatory muscle strength, diaphragm thickness and pulmonary function in world-class powerlifters. European Journal of Applied Physiology, v. 113 n.11 p. 2849-2855, 2013.

CARNETHON, M. R.; GULATI, M.; GREENLAND, P. Prevalence and cardiovascular disease correlates of low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents and adults. The Journal of the American Medical Association v.294, n.23, p. 2981–2988, 2005.

CASATORI, L. et al. Differential Influence of Physical Activity on Cardiopulmonary Performance and Stroke Volume Assessed at Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in Pectus Excavatum: A Pilot Study. Front Physiol. V.13, 2022

CAVALCANTI, C.B.S. et al. Anthropometric indicators of abdominal obesity: review of the papers indexed on SciELO electronic library. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano. v. 11, n. 2, p. 217-225, 2009.

CHANG, Y.C. et al. “Effects of 4-Week Inspiratory Muscle Training on Sport Performance in College 800-Meter Track Runners.” Medicina. v. 57, n.1, p. 72, 2021.

COHEN, S.; KAMARCK, T.; MERMELSTEIN, R. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. v. 24, n. 4, p. 385-396, 1983.

CORRÊA, M.M. et al. Waist-to-height ratio as an anthropometric marker of overweight in elderly Brazilians. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, v. 33, n. 5, 2017.

COSTA, T.R. et al. Correlation of respiratory muscle strength with anthropometric variables of normal-weight and obese women. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992). v. 56, n.4, p. 403-408, 2010.

DAGAN, S.S. Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects. Nutrition Journal. v.12, n.12, p.1-8 ,2013.

DAMRONGTHAI, C. et al. Benefit of human moderate running boosting mood and executive function coinciding with bilateral prefrontal activation. Scientific Reports, v.11, n.1, 2021.

DISHMAN, R.K. et al. Heart rate variability, trait anxiety, and perceived stress among physically fit men and women. International Journal of Psychophysiology, v. 37, n. 2, p. 121-133, 2000.

DUARTE, M. F. S.; DUARTE, C.R. Validade do teste aeróbico de corrida de vai-e-vem de 20 metros, Revista Brasileira Ciência e Movimento. v. 9, n. 3, p. 07-14, 2001.

DURMIC, T. et al. The training type influence on male elite athletes’ ventilatory function. Open Sport & Exercises Medicine. v. 3, e000240, 2017

EATHER, N. et al. Efficacy and feasibility of HIIT training for university students: The Uni-HIIT RCT. Journal Science and Medicine Sport. 2019 v. 22 n.5, p. 596-601, 2018.

FARIAS, E.S. et al. Efeito da atividade física programada sobre a aptidão física em escolares adolescentes. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano. v. 12, n. 2, p. 98-105, 2010.

FOGELHOLM, M. et al. Waist circumference and BMI are independently associated with the variation of cardio-respiratory and neuromuscular fitness in young adult men. International Journal of Obesity. v.30, n.6, p.962–969, 2006.

GERBER, M. et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness protects against stress-related symptoms of burnout and depression. Patient Education and Counseling, v. 93, n.1, p.146-152, 2013.

GERBER, M. et al. Fitness Moderates the Relationship between Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Medicine & Science & Sports & Exercises, v. 48, n. 11, p. 2075-2081, 2016.

GRAHAM, B.L et al. Standardization of Spirometry Update. An Official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Technical Statement. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, v. 200, n. 8, p. 70-88, 2019.

HACKETT, D, A. Lung Function and Respiratory Muscle Adaptations of Endurance- and Strength-Trained Males. Sports (Basel), v. 8, n.12, p.160, 2020.

HOMANN, D. et al. Percepção de estresse e sintomas depressivos: funcionalidade e impacto na qualidade de vida em mulheres com fibromialgia. Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia, v. 52, n. 3, p. 324-330, 2012.

JEREMIAS, P.A.I. et al. Comparação da função pulmonar e VO2máx. em atletas do time de futsal da UNISUL pré temporada. Orientador Kelser de Souza Kock. Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso – Curso de Fisioterapia. Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brasil, 2008.

LAKOSKI, S. G. et al. Impact of Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, and Other Clinical Factors on Cardiorespiratory Fitness (from the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study). The American Journal of Cardiology. v. 108, n.1, p. 34–39, 2011.

LIMA, M. Efeito do treino dos músculos inspiratórios na função pulmonar em nadadores de competição. Orientador Rui Viana e Sérgio Barreira.Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso – Curso de Fisioterapia. Departamento de Ciências da Enfermagem e Tecnologias da Saúde, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal, 2018.

LLOYD-JONES, D.M. et al. Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: The American Heart Association’s strategic impact goal through 2020 and beyond. Circulation, v. 121, n. 4, p. 586–613, 2010.

LUNDBY, C. et al. Biology of VO2max: looking under the physiology lamp. Acta physiologica (Oxford, England) v. 220, n. 2, p.218-228, 2017.

MAGNANI, K.L.; CATANEO A.J. Respiratory muscle strength in obese individuals and influence of upper-body fat distribution. São Paulo Medical Journal, v. 125, n.4, p. 215-219, 2007.

MARTINEZ-FERRAN, M. et al. Metabolic Impacts of Confinement during the COVID-19 Pandemic Due to Modified Diet and Physical Activity Habits. Nutrients, v. 12, n.6, 2020.

MATSUDO, S. et al. Questionário Internacional De Atividade Física (Ipaq): Estudo De Validade E Reprodutibilidade No Brasil. Atividade Física & Saúde, v. 6, n. 2, p. 5–18, 2001.

MCCONNELL, A.K.; LOMAX M. The influence of inspiratory muscle work history and specific inspiratory muscle training upon human limb muscle fatigue. The Journal of Physiology. v. 577, pt.1, p.445–457, 2006.

MCCONNELL, A.K; GRIFFITHS, L.A. Acute Cardiorespiratory Responses to Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. v.42, n.9, p.1696–1703, 2010.

MENEZES, T.N., et al. Obesidade abdominal: revisão crítica das técnicas de aferição e dos pontos de corte de indicadores antropométricos adotados no Brasil. Ciência saúde coletiva. v. 19, n. 06, p. 1741-1754, 2014.

MYRKOS, A. et al. Physiological and Race Pace Characteristics of Medium and Low-Level Athens Marathon Runners. Sports (Basel, Switzerland) v. 8, n.9, 2020.

NEDER, J.A. et al. Reference values for lung function tests: II. Maximal respiratory pressures and voluntary ventilation. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, v. 32, n. 6, p. 719-727, 1999b.

OSBORNE, M.T. et al. Disentangling the Links Between Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging, v. 13, n.8, 2020.

OUESLATI, F. et al. Respiratory muscle strength is decreased after maximal incremental exercise in trained runners and cyclists. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. v. 248, p. 25–30, 2018.

PALUDO, A.C, et al. Aptidão cardiorrespiratória em adolescentes estimada pelo teste de corrida e/ou caminhada de 9 minutos. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano. v. 14, n. 4, p. 401-408, 2012.

PANAGIOTAKOS, D.B; PITSAVOS, C; STEFANADIS, C. Dietary patterns: a Mediterranean diet score and its relation to clinical and biological markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD, v. 16, n.8, p.559-568, 2006.

PERALTA, G.P., et al. Body mass index and weight change are associated with adult lung function trajectories: The prospective ECRHS study. Thorax. v. 75, n. 4, p. 313-320, 2020.

PEREIRA, C.A.C. et al. Espirometria. Jornal de Pneumologia, v. 28, n. 3, p. S1-S82, 2002.

PUNTMANN, V.O; CARERJ, M.L; WIETERS, I. Outcomes of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients recently recovered from coronavirus disease. JAMA Cardiology, v. 5, n. 11, p. 1265–1273, 2020.

QUANJER P.H., et al. Global Lung Function Initiative. Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: The global lung function 2012 equations. European Respiratory Journal. v.40, n.6 p.1324–1343, 2012.

REIS, R.S; HINO, A.A; AÑEZ, C.R. Perceived stress scale: reliability and validity study in Brazil. Journal Health Psychology, v.15, n.1, p.107-14, 2010.

RELJIC, D. et al. Low-volume high-intensity interval training improves cardiometabolic health, work ability and well-being in severely obese individuals: a randomized-controlled trial sub-study. Journal of Translational Medicine, v. 18, n. 419, p. 1-15, 2020.

RO H.J., et al. Relationship Between Respiratory Muscle Strength and Conventional Sarcopenic Indices in Young Adults: A Preliminary Study. Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine. v.39, n.6, p. 880-887, 2015.

ROŻEK-PIECHURA, K. et. al. Influence of Inspiratory Muscle Training of Various Intensities on the Physical Performance of Long-Distance Runners. Journal of human kinetics. v. 75, p. 127–137, 2020.

SCHILLING, R., et al. Does Cardiorespiratory Fitness Moderate the Association between Occupational Stress, Cardiovascular Risk, and Mental Health in Police Officers? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, v. 16, n. 13, p. 2349, 2019.

SHEEL, A.W., et al. Fatiguing inspiratory muscle work causes reflex reduction in resting leg blood flow in humans. The Journal of Physiology. v. 537, pt1, p.277–289, 2001.

SILVA, A.M.B.; ENUMO, S.R.F. Estresse em atletas de modalidades coletivas: uma revisão sistemática. Arquivos em movimento, v.12, n.1, p. 91-105, 2016

SIN, E.L.L., CHOW, C.; CHEUNG, R.T.H. Relationship between personal psychological capitals, stress level, and performance in marathon runners. Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal, v. 33, n. 2, p. 67-72, 2015.

SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE PNEUMOLOGIA E TISIOLOGIA. Diretrizes para testes de função pulmonar. Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia. V. 28 supp. 3, 2002.

STENSRUD, T. et al. Lung function and oxygen saturation after participation in Norseman Xtreme Triathlon. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, v. 30, n.6, p. 1008-1016, 2020.

SUI, X. et al. Physical activity/fitness peaks during perimenopause and BMI change patterns are not associated with baseline activity/fitness in women: a longitudinal study with a median 7-year follow-up. British Journal of Sports Medicine. v.47, n.2, p.77–82, 2013.

TORESDAHL, B.G; ASIF, I.M. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Considerations for the Competitive Athlete. Sports Health. v. 12, n. 3, p. 221-224, 2020.

SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE CARDIOLOGIA / SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE HIPERTENSÃO / SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE NEFROLOGIA. VI Diretrizes Brasileiras de Hipertensão. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, São Paulo , v. 95, n. 1, supl. 1, p. 1-51, 2010.

WONG, S. L. et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower abdominal fat independent of body mass index. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. v.36, n.2, p.286–291, 2004.

WOODS, J.A. et al. The COVID-19 pandemic and physical activity. Sports medicine and Health Science, v.2, ed. 2, p. 55-64, 2020.

ZHAO, Y.M. et al. Follow-up study of the pulmonary function and related physiological characteristics of COVID-19 survivors three months after recovery. EClinicalMedicine. v. 25, n. 100463, 2020.

ZEIHER, J. et al. Correlates and determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults: a systematic review. Sports Medicine. v.5, n.39, p.1-24, 2019.

ZEIHER, J. et al. Individual and interpersonal correlates of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults – Findings from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey. Scientific Reports. v.10, n.1, 2020.

ZHENG, Y.Y. et al. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Nature reviews. Cardiology, v.7, n. 5, p. 259-260, 2020.